From one invader to another (Excerpt from History of the Filipino People – Challenges and Responses to Nationhood)

Opinion & Analysis Philippines Jun 22, 2018 at 4:25 pm

usph-reasonforimperialismOn June 12, 1898, Philippine independence was declared in a ceremony in Kawit, Cavite. For the first time, the national flag made by Marcela Agoncillo in Hongkong was raised, while the bands played Marcha National Filipina written by Julian Felipe. Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista wrote and read the Declaration of Independence.

Aguinaldo announced the separation of the Philippines from Spain. However, the independence established for the Filipinos was “under the protection” of America, a clear manifestation that the sovereignty fought for by the Revolutionaries was only as a “protectorate” or a country that remains under supervision of another country.

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